If you are the beneficiary of a trust, it may feel like you are at the mercy of the trustee. But depending on the type of trust, trust beneficiaries may have rights to ensure the trust is properly managed.
A trust is a legal arrangement through which one person, called a “settlor” or “grantor,” gives assets to another person (or an institution, such as a bank or law firm), called a “trustee.” The trustee holds legal title to the assets for another person, called a “beneficiary.” The rights of a trust beneficiary depend on the type of trust and the type of beneficiary.
If the trust is a revocable trust — meaning the person who set up the trust can change it or revoke it at any time — trust beneficiaries other than the settlor have very few rights. Because the settlor can change the trust at any time, he or she can also change the beneficiaries at any time. Often a trust is revocable until the settlor dies and then it becomes irrevocable, meaning that it cannot be changed except in rare cases by court order.
Beneficiaries of an irrevocable trust have the right to some information about the trust. The scope of those rights depends on the type of beneficiary. Current beneficiaries are beneficiaries who are currently entitled to income from the trust. Remainder or contingent beneficiaries have an interest in the trust after the current beneficiaries’ interest is over. For example, a wife may set up a trust that leaves income to her husband for life (the current beneficiary) and then the remainder of the property to her children (the remainder beneficiaries).
State law and the terms of the trust determine exactly what rights a beneficiary has, but there are five common rights given to beneficiaries of irrevocable trusts:
- Payment. Current beneficiaries have the right to distributions as set forth in the trust document.
- Information. Current and remainder beneficiaries have the right to be provided enough information about the trust and its administration to know how to enforce their rights.
- An accounting. Current beneficiaries are entitled to an accounting. An accounting is a detailed report of all income, expenses, and distributions from the trust. Typically, trustees are required to provide an accounting annually, but that may vary, depending on the terms of the trust. Beneficiaries may also be able to waive the accounting.
- Removal of the trustee. Current and remainder beneficiaries have the right to petition a court for the removal of the trustee if they believe the trustee isn’t acting in their best interest. Trustees have an obligation to balance the needs of the current beneficiary with the needs of the remainder beneficiaries, which can be difficult to manage.
- Ending the trust. In some circumstances, if all the current and remainder beneficiaries agree, they can petition a court to end the trust. State laws vary on when this is allowed.